differences, advantages and future of the Internet

When it comes to connecting our devices to the internet, IP addresses play an important role. There are two main types of IP addresses: IPv4 and IPv6. But what is the difference between the two and why should we deal with it as soon as possible? Let’s take a closer look at what IPv4 and v6 are and what pros and cons you can expect – IPv4 vs IPv6.

IPv4 versus IPv6

IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4) is the older of the two types of IP addresses and was introduced in 1983 and has been in use since the ARPANET of that time. It allows up to 4.3 billion unique IP addresses to be assigned on the World Wide Web or the public part of the Internet. That may seem like a lot, but with the increasing proliferation of internet-connected devices such as smartphones, tablets, and smart home devices, the number of IP addresses still available is getting scarcer. Yet it currently poses less of a threat than you might think. After all, you usually only use one IP address on the public WWW. Your devices themselves are located in the private LAN and occupy only one private IP address, such as 192.168.0.xxx. This type of private addresses can be assigned by any router or DHCP server without further ado. Public addresses are not occupied for this purpose.

IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) is the more recent of the two types, was standardized in 1995 and first introduced in 1998. It allows the allocation of 340 sextillion unique IP addresses. This unimaginable number is intended to ensure that enough IP addresses will be available for all devices and applications on the Internet in the distant future.

The differences between IPv4 and IPv6

One of the most obvious differences between versions 4 and 6 is the number of IP addresses available. As mentioned earlier, IPv4 allows the allocation of up to 4.3 billion IP addresses, while IPv6 allows the allocation of 340 sextillion IP addresses. Another difference is the length of IP addresses. IPv4 addresses consist of 32 bits and are represented as xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx. It is still relatively easy to enter such an address manually. IPv6, however, takes the cake in terms of length. These addresses consist of 128 bits and are represented as xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx. Not only numbers are possible, but sometimes also HEX values, i.e. all characters from a to f as well as numbers from 0 to 9.

Do you prefer IPv4 instead of IPv6?

IPv4 and IPv6 are valid internet protocols and are currently used in the same way. However, as the number of available IPv4 addresses becomes scarce, IPv6 is increasingly seen as the future of the Internet, although the transition may take several more years. Since both types exist simultaneously, the transition is smooth. As an end user, however, it doesn’t really matter what protocol you use on the WWW.

Although IPv6 is the newest and most evolving option, IPv4 is still widely used. Many older devices and networks only support IPv4 and it can be difficult to switch them to IPv6. However, it is important to note that IPv4 addresses are becoming scarce and it may become increasingly difficult to obtain new IPv4 addresses in the future. Therefore, it is recommended to support both IPv4 and 6 and gradually migrate to IPv6. If your provider already provides v6, you can of course already use the new standard.

IPv4 and IPv6 at the same time on a Fritzbox

Many modern routers and networks, such as the Fritzbox, support both standards – IPv4 and IPv6. This means that both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses can be assigned when configuring the Fritzbox, and therefore both variants can be used. However, this also implies that you must enable or disable the standards you want in your Windows 10 or 11 network settings. If both are active at the same time, all traffic goes through v6.

Advantages and disadvantages

Both protocols offer very specific advantages and disadvantages, so even using both standards at the same time is often the most sensible solution. IPv4 has the advantage of being widespread and widely supported, while IPv6 has the advantage of having more addresses available and is generally easier to manage. However, IPv4 has the disadvantage that the number of available addresses is very limited compared to v6, while IPv6 has the disadvantage of not being supported by older devices and networks.

Is IPv6 faster than IPv4?

Although IPv6 offers greater functionality and improved capabilities, it does not offer an advantage over IPv4 in terms of speed. Rather, it depends on other factors like the speed of your internet connection and the performance of your internal network. IPv6 vs IPv4 performance therefore turns out to be almost identical. Both protocols are capable of transmitting data quickly and in packets. However, a major advantage of IPv6 is its support for more devices and easier address management.

Convert internet protocol

One way to convert IPv6 traffic to IPv4 is to use so-called tunneling technologies. An IPv6-of-4 tunnel, or IPv4-to-IPv6 tunnel, allows IPv6 packets to travel through an IPv4 network by embedding the v6 data into the IPv4 packets. This allows IPv6 endpoints to access IPv4 resources even if the IPv4 network does not have native IPv6 support. There are a number of different tunneling protocols that can be used, such as Teredo, 6to4, or ISATAP. However, one of the disadvantages of tunneling technologies is that they can add overhead, affecting speed and latency.

Switch from IPv6 to IPv4

Switching from IPv6 to the older IPv4 protocol, also known as downgrading, may be necessary for a number of reasons. A common reason is that certain applications or devices are only compatible with IPv4 and therefore do not work as desired on an IPv6 network. Another reason may be that the IPv6 network is not working stably due to errors or problems, so it needs to be temporarily switched back to IPv4. To upgrade from IPv6 to 4, IPv6 support can be disabled on the router or network device, or special software can be used to allow IPv6 packets to be tunneled into IPv4 packets. It should be noted, however, that downgrading to IPv4 is not the optimal long-term solution, as IPv4 addresses will become scarce and may not be sufficiently available in the future.

If you want to use a certain protocol in your Windows 10 or 11 or just want to see the current setting, you can easily do that through Network Settings.

IPv4 vs IPv6: Access network settings
IPv4 vs IPv6: Access network settings

Find “View Network Connections” in the Start menu, click on it, then right-click on your currently used network connection. Select “Properties” to open another window with information about the selected connection.

Network connection properties
Open the properties of your network connection

You can now see in the list which protocols are enabled. In a standard installation of Windows 11, both protocols i.e. v4 and v6 are already enabled at the same time. This does not rarely cause problems in the network, especially in mixed environments. For example, computers do not appear in the network environment or games opened on the local network do not appear because your game is not running on the same protocol as another computer.

List of Internet Protocols (IPv4 vs IPv6)
List of Internet Protocols (IPv4 vs IPv6)

If you want to change this, you can simply check or uncheck the desired protocol. In the local network, for example, you will hardly be able to take advantage of IPv6. On the contrary, it is an effective way to bypass all firewalls on your computer, especially third-party ones. It may therefore be a good idea to disable IPv6 and continue to use v4 on your local network, because this standard is sufficient and you do not have to enter long IP addresses.

Where is the trip going?

IPv4 vs IPv6 is an important topic because Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) was the primary method of identifying and connecting devices on the then ARPANET and today’s Internet, respectively. since its introduction in 1983. However, with the rapid growth of the Internet and the increasing number of devices online, IPv4 addresses are gradually becoming scarce. To solve this problem, Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) was created.

IPv6 offers a greater number of possible addresses, improving the efficiency and scalability of the Internet. Another important aspect when considering IPv4 vs IPv6 is also security, as IPv6 offers built-in support for security protocols such as IPSec. Overall, IPv6 offers a variety of advantages over IPv4, which is why it’s important for businesses and organizations to migrate their networks and devices to IPv6 as soon as possible. In any case, the communication and networking of all devices remains the decisive factor for success in the digital world.

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